Monday, January 30, 2017

The Family of Elijah Canard, Creek Freedmen - Celebrating Freedmen Families

Many who research Freedmen from the Muscogee Creek Nation area aware that there are challenges facing the researcher, because many of the application jackets were never digitized and are thus lost. Although a good portion are indeed missing and the words of the ancestors are lost to time, there are some cases where interviews survived, and they are worth examining.

The family of Elijah Canard, is such a family whose history can be examined and studied. The family data should also be studied because it illustrates agin how many of the families were blended with families from other nations. In this case the Canard family is blended with a family of Chickasaw Freedmen.

The enrollment card of Elijah Canard's family is full of information, full of clues, and can lead the researcher to explore additional records.

National Archives Publication M1186 Creek Freedman Card #221

The National Archives at Ft Worth; Ft Worth, Texas, USA; Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914; NAI Number: 251747; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs;

Record Group Number: 75

In August 1898, Elijah Canard appeared in front of the Dawes Commission to enroll himself and his family as Creek Freedmen. Though Creeks, they resided in the Chickasaw Nation, in the town of Maxwell, Indian Territory. It is noted quickly that James and the children had been recognized as Creeks prior to that and their names were already on a roll  in 1895. Elijah was enrolling his sons, James, Jimmie and Johnie in addition to two gr. nephews, Earnest and Wilford McIntosh.

Elijah was 41 years old at the time, and he had been enslaved by Moty Canard. Prior to Elijah's appearance with the Dawes Commission, his name had been inscribed on the 1867 Dunn Roll, and this was noted on the card as well. In addition, his name was also listed on the 1890 Roll of Creek citizens. On the 1867 Dunn Roll, Elijah's name appeared as Elijah McIntosh, #934 (At that time he was listed as having belonged to Arkansas Town.) 

Dunn Roll page obtained from:
Ancestry - Oklahoma & Indian Territory Indian Censuses & Rolls 1851-1959
Image number 196 of 592
(Note the hand-written number "228" aside the name, referring to the later Dawes Card.)
 His parents were Caesar Canard, who was enslaved by Moty Canard, and his mother was Clara Hared, enslaved by Maria McIntosh. both parents apparently died right after the Civil War. By the time of the Dawes Commission, he belonged to North Fork Town. James' mother was Tilda Canard, and the mother of Jimmie and Johnie was listed a Leathy. Elijah's current wife was said to be Martha Canard, a Chickasaw Freedman. 

Reverse side of enrollment card. (see citation from top image above)

Anthony & Peggy McIntosh were the parents of Elijah's gr. nephews. Their father Anthony was not a citizen, but their mother Peggy was a Creek Freedman who belonged to North Fork Town. Peggy was the niece to Elijah and the mother to Earnest and Wilford McIntosh, the two young boys. All had their citizenship approved by the Creek Council in August 1895.

From the Application Jacket:

The first person interviewed was Polly Perry. She was a brother to Elijah, but she was there to testify on behalf of the two boys Ernest and Wilford McIntosh. The mother of the two boys was Peggy McIntosh and she was deceased. Peggy their mother was the daughter of Polly's sister. (Both Polly and Peggy's mother were siblings also to Elijah Canard.) Polly explained the relationship in her interview.

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Creek Freedman Packet #221
Image Obtained from Fold3

On the second page of the interview Elijah himself speaks and shares more information about the family data including details about the father of the two boys.


National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326248

Much more is revealed in the application jacket of Elijah, where there is much interest in the enrollment of the nephews, their parents and whether they had been previously enrolled by the Creek Nation. 
National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326249

Details about the movement during and after the war is revealed when Miley Johnson was interviewed. She explains where they were taken during the war and where the family, including Elijah lived after the war ended.

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326250

There was still interest in the status of the children and the need to determine if they had even been enrolled as Chickasaw Freedmen, as their mother was from Chickasaw Freedmen communities.

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326251


Three years later, in September 1901, and then again in October, the status of Elijah (Lige) Canard was examined more thoroughly by the Commission.

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326252

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326253


National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326254

Contained also in the file were two pages pertaining to the lands allotted to some of the members of the family, including the sons Jimmie and Johnnie. Attention was paid to the fact that the mother was Chickasaw, and that they were applying as Creek Freedmen. There was analysis of Elijah's name whether it was Canard, or Walker. The name Walker does not appear on the enrollment card, but comes out in this application Jacket. 

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326255


It is also noted that Willie Cohee of the Chickasaw Nation had previously made application for the boys to be enrolled as Chickasaw Freedmen and that lands were to have been allotted to them as such. The exact description of the land appears in those pages. 

National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326256


National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326257


Further analysis concluded that there were no conflicting interests in spite of the lands set aside for the sons,  and that no attempt to convey the lands to them, so it was decided that the Chickasaw allotments be stricken and that they be enrolled as Creek Freedmen allottees.



National Archives Publication M1301
Application Jackets Chickasaw Freedman Packet #228
Image Obtained from Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/66326258

Since there was much discussion about the lands allotted to the children, I decided to see where their allotted lands were located, and it appears that they received land near each other. In Township 19, Range 8 the lands reflecting their family allotments are shown below.
Ancestry.com. Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Land Allotment Jackets for Five Civilized Tribes, 1884-1934 
[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, 2014.
(Creek Freedmen: Image 42 of 869)

It is not known whether the family retained the land over the years or not. Many Creeks lost land over the years due to land thieves and swindlers, known to take advantage of many families in rural communities throughout Oklahoma.  Hopefully this family was able to retain lands over the next century. Regardless, theirs is a history of survival of slavery, freedom, Creek citizenship, membership in their tribal town, and finally ownership of their own land after the Dawes Rolls were finally closed.

This particular case reflects many aspects of the complex nature of the lives of Indian Territory Freedmen. Many married citizens of other nations, and though this family lived in Chickasaw country, they were indeed Creeks and thus were entitled to lands as Creek citizens. The family's structure was complicated by the fact that Elijah Canard was the guardian to his niece's children, with their parents having preceded them in death.



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(This is the fourth article in a series devoted to sharing families once enslaved in Indian Territory. The focus is on Freedmen from the Five Civilized Tribes, and are part of the effort to document 52 families in 52 weeks.)

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

An "Ancestral Time Line" Reflected

In a previous article I shared with my readers the results of one of the autosomal tests that I have taken. Included was an image of the ethnic percentage breakdown revealed through that kind of test.
Having taken an autosomal DNA test with both Ancestry and 23andMe, I often find the visual tools offered by the testing companies to be useful and fun to examine.*



Many of us in the DNA genealogy community have shared similar charts illustrating our DNA ethnic percentages, and it has been interesting to see the breakdown. And for myself having a documented tie to the Five Civilized Tribes, both "Freedmen" and "By Blood" the results expected, were confirmed. But it is always important to point out that DNA testing is only a tool and it reflects sometimes a mere recombination of DNA markers from the ancestors and not the entire genealogy of anyone. In other words, it does not replace research, for it is genealogical research that will tell the stories that we seek.

Recently, in social media, a timeline that 23andMe provides reflecting the time period in which a particular ethnic group most likely entered your ancestral line. I decided to look at my own results on 23andMe, and found the data to be consistent with what my research has revealed. I found the illustration to be quite fascinating and although for each and every group. Although no genealogy is ever "complete" I still found the illustration to be fun to examine, and not in contrast to data already collected. The time line was somewhat consistent with some of the research of my well documented lines.


 Of course the time span is quite broad, but looking at the Native American ancestry, on my own time line, it does coincide with the life span and the period of exposure that my African ancestors had to the documented Native ancestor. I do point out that most features on the three major autosomal testing sites should be considered simply tools, and DNA testing for genealogical insight is still in its infancy. So there is nothing conclusive, or detail-specific from the time line. And research most definitely continues on all of my lines, and the effort to document the family and to tell the story is one that continues.

But for those who have taken autosomal tests with 23andMe, AncestryDNA or  FamilyTreeDNA there are numerous tools to explore as they may assist one with providing other insights into the past, and can give one more to add to the family narrative.
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*(Note that several years ago some DNA tests were conducted in Oklahoma for those wishing to illustrated Native American DNA. However the test utilized was not an autosomal tests, so many who took those tests received "false" negative reports. Autosomal tests are more reflective of the ethnic percentages of one's ancestral background and it is suggested that individuals take one of those three autosomal tests available.)

Monday, January 16, 2017

The Family of Becca & James Carter, Seminole Freedmen

(This is the second in a series devoted to sharing families once enslaved in Indian Territory. The focus will be Freedmen from the Five Civilized Tribes. They are also part of another effort to document 52 families in 52 weeks. Theirs is an amazing story of survival and adaptation to life on the frontier. Though seldom mentioned, the Oklahoma Freedmen have a rich story to tell and this is a small effort to tell some of them.)

 
Enrollment Card of Becca Carter and Family
National Archives Publication No. M1186, Semionle Freedman Card No 623
The National Archives at Ft Worth; Ft Worth, Texas, USA; Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914; NAI Number: 251747; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; Record Group Number: 75

Becca Carter was the mother of several children and she appeared in front of the Dawes Commission to enroll herself and her children. This was a family of Seminole Freedmen and the enrollment card clearly illustrates the structure of the Seminole Nation. The tribe itself has always been structured by bands. With this particular family it is clear that they are part of the Dosar Barkus band. That band was and still is one of the two "Freedman" bands in the Seminole Nation to day.

On the card it is pointed out that her husband was a Creek Citizen, explaining why his name is not on the front of the card. It is also noted that one of her daughters (Rachel) later married by the time the rolls were finalized and became the wife of Nero Noble. Becca was 45 years old at the time and thus was born before slavery had ended in Indian Territory. She was said to be the slave of Eliza Bowlegs.

Note that there was no date on the enrollment card, but it is obvious that she appeared after 1897, because it was noted that she and the family had previously been enrolled as members of the Barkus band on the 1897 roll.
(Source: Same as above. Color Images accessed from Ancestry)


The reverse side of the card reveals more of Becca Carter's history. Her father was Cyrus Davis, and her mother was Polly Carter. The slave holder of both of her parents was Eliza Bowlegs. Both of her parents were also at one time, members of the Dosar Barkus band. Her husband's name was James Carter and he is listed as the father of the children in the household.  A notation points out that he was "free born". However not much more is known of him.  (A quick search of Dawes Records does not provide information on James Carter's enrollment as a Creek Freedman.)

 Unfortunately, the Dawes Packet for Seminole Freedmen Card No. 623 is not available. A range of Dawes packets are said to simply be "empty" and her packet is among the empty ones.



So the question arose whether additional information about the family could be found. I decided to follow the few clues left on the front of the card. First, since it was noted that Becca and her family was previously enrolled in 1897, I decided to see if that roll could be located.

Thankfully, on Ancestry, there is an extensive collection of records from Oklahoma and Indian Territory, beyond the Dawes Rolls. One of those extensive collections is called "Indian Censuses and Rolls 1851-1959. This covers a period of more than a century, and it includes records from the Five Civilized Tribes.

There was a section of documents reflecting  the 1895 Seminole Census. Sure enough Becca called "Becky" was there on that roll with her children. They were separated by "band" and the Dosar Barcus band contained a column where the name of the spouse of the enrolled person was listed. Clearly it can be seen that "Jim" is written a side column,


Ancestry.com. Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Indian Censuses and Rolls, 1851-1959 [database on-line].
Provo, UT, USA:  Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2014.

Original data: Selected Tribal Records. The National Archives at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Texas.


The document came from a small collection from Fort Worth Texas with earlier records from the Seminole Nation. Thanks to a partnership with the National Archives, and also with the Oklahoma Historical Society, that 1895 Seminole census document is now available. (The page reflecting page 60 of 467 images on Ancestry.)



Since this set of records contained both 1895-96 Seminole Census and 1897 Seminole census, Becca and her family was indeed found on the 1897 census Roll as well.

(Item appears as image 107 of 467 in same record set mentioned above.)


So although the Dawes packet was not available, could other things about the family be learned. The front site of the census card did note that Becca's children had later become parents. On the bottom of the card were notes on where to find the children of Becca's children.

(Close up of image on front of Dawes Card)
National Archives Publication M1186
The National Archives at Ft Worth; Ft Worth, Texas, USA; Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914; NAI Number: 251747; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; Record Group Number: 75


The Seminole Newborn collection reflected the enrollment of a grandchild of Becca Carter--that of Alec Carter. Alec was the son of Philip Carter, Becca's son. In that file was an extensive interview plus a birth record for the child. 

(National Archives Publication M1301 Application Packet Seminole Freedman 95)
Also in this file, James Carter, Becca's husband James appears and gives a testimony as well. As was indicated earlier, James was identified as a Creek citizen. Apparently Becca and James were separated, as he mentions that he had another child, Maria Jackson whose mother was not enrolled.



Like most Dawes records the descendants of Becca Carter have a well-documented one, even in spite of the fact that the enrollment packet is missing for the family. By searching the earlier census records, and also by following the clues in the New Born files, one can get a better glimpse of the family makeup, and the individuals whose stories are to be told.

For further research, land allotment records and other records still unexplored will yield even more about the children of Becca and James Careter a Freedman family from the Barkus band of the Seminole Nation.

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This is the 2nd article in a series devoted to sharing families held as slaves in Indian Territory, (now known as Oklahoma.) The focus is on Freedmen from the Five Civilized Tribes and are part of the efforts in 2017 to document 52 families in 52 weeks.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

The Family of Emma & William Davis, Cherokee Nation-Celebrating Freedman Families

(As part of a new series on this blog, a family from Indian Territory will be celebrated and a portion of their history will be shared. The goal is to honor 52 families in 52 weeks for the new year. With this being the second week there will be 2 families honored this week, and then 1 family per week afterwards. The intention is to illlustrate and share the amazing resilience of the families that descend from persons once enslaved in Indian Territory. Theirs is an amazing story of survival and adaptation to life on the frontier. Though seldom mentioned, the Oklahoma Freedmen have a rich story to tell, and this is a small effort to tell some of their stories.)

The Davis Family of Hayden, Cherokee Nation

Enrollment Card of Emma Davis Family
National Archives Publication Number (M1186 Cherokee Freedman Card No.936
The National Archives at Ft Worth; Ft Worth, Texas, USA; Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914; NAI Number: 251747; Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs; Record Group Number: 75

(Reverse side of card)
Source : Same as above


By looking at the enrollment card, Emma Davis appeared in front of the Dawes Commission on May 30, 1901 to enroll herself and her children as Cherokee Freedmen. Emma was 43 years of age and had been enslaved by George Whitmire. At the time of her appearance at the Dawes Commission, she was living in the Cooweescoowee District of the Cherokee Nation. Her enrollment card reflects a large family with her children Joseph, William Jr., Bertie, Chester, Julia, Jennette, Henry, Oscar, Carrie, and later, infant Lottie. (Lottie's name was added in October of that year, after birth affidavits were submitted.)

The family had been enumerated earlier, in the Cherokee Nation as evidenced by the notation of how they were previously on the Kern Clifton Roll, a roll taken several years earlier. The enrollment card also indicates that they had representation for them by attorneys Melette and Smith, in Vinita.

The reverse side of the card contains more data on the family. Emma was the daughter of Issac Glass, and Betsey Whitmire. Her father Isaac was a Freedman, who was deceased at the time she made her application, and her mother also deceased was at one time enslaved by George Whitmire of the Cherokee Nation.

Emma's husband was William Davis who was also a Cherokee Freedman of the Cooweescoowee District. He was at one time enslaved by Robert French.

The Dawes Interview

The Interview that accompanies this file contains amazingly rich genealogical data. Also it appears that William Davis, Emma's husband was actually the one who spoke on behalf of the family. It is not certain why his name is not on the same card. Nevertheless the data is quite rich, because the exact dates of birth are included, in addition to specific questions about the children were addressed.

Interview from Application Jacket of Cherokee Freedman File No 936
National Archives Publication M1301

In the interview, William Davis goes into detail about the family's status, and points out how they were recognized as Cherokee citizens. He provides data about his slave holders Bob and Margaret French. Bob French, he pointed out was white and his wife was Cherokee. In addition,  he also shares information about his own parents and siblings. He describes how they were taken to Ft. Gibson during the war, but returned to their own community at the end of the war.

There is much discussion and later analysis in the file that contains even more family data. Included was mention of William Davis' own father Jackson Davis who also has a card. (D463)

The file contained additional information including a birth affidavit for children, Oscar, Carrie and Lottie.

Birth Affidavit for Oscar Davis
Source: National Archives Publication M1301 Cherokee Freedman No 936
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/62914370

Source: National Archives Publication M1301 Cherokee Freedman No 936
Acccessed: 
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/62914372


Birth Affidavit for Lottie Davis:
Accessed on Fold3:
https://www.fold3.com/image/260/62914374



A final interview is included in the Dawes file. Joseph Davis appears to be a grown son of Emma and William, and his interview is also included with this file. 

Source of image: https://www.fold3.com/image/260/62914375



On the enrollment card (see 1st image above) William Davis's name does not appear. However, it turns out that he did have a card of his own, and was subsequently rejected by the Dawes Commission, however, it is still valuable to study and to include with the family data. (A future article will feature the extended Davis family.)

The file of the Davis family of Hayden, Cherokee Nation is a genealogically rich one. There are other records that will reflect more information that for the family, but this data from this initial file provides a rich beginning for the family research.

Saturday, January 7, 2017

Oklahoma Vital Record Index to Open January 9th 2017




Great news for Oklahoma genealogists! The Vital Records Index for the state of Oklahoma will open up on Monday January 9th.

This will be a free searchable index of births and deaths. From that site you will then have the option of ordering official copies of the original record. In addition, you have the option of searching by name, date (of birth or death), county and gender! And note that the only set of records that are not part of this database appear to be marriage records. However, still having access to birth and death will provide a much needed boost for many Oklahoma ancestored researchers.

 Of course many who research Dawes records know that there are some pre-statehood vital records to be found among the many application packets. In addition one can also find marriage records among that collection. However, being able now to access a searchable index is a wonderful new tool that Oklahoma based families will appreciate.

Researchers from bordering states and from communities near the state line are also encouraged to use this database. In some cases young couples would cross the state line to marry, and one may find a "missing" marriage record in that database as well.

This link will provide easy access to the Vital Records Index.